Grades 3—5, 6—8, 9—12 The President of the United States has a very demanding job. The Constitution outlines many of the duties of a president, but modern society and technology have also changed and expanded the expectations placed on a president in some ways. These are seven of the major areas of responsibility that presidents manage. Chief of State This role requires a president to be an inspiring example for the American people.
Some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of "models". Among the different state constitutions fundamental laws that establish different political systems, four major types of heads of state can be distinguished: The parliamentary systemwith two subset models; The standard model, in which the head of state, in theory, possesses key executive powers, but the exercise of such power is done on the binding advice of a head of government e.
The non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or very limited executive powers, and mainly has a ceremonial and symbolic role e. The semi-presidential systemin which the head of state shares key executive powers with a head of government or cabinet e.
The same role in a federal constituent and a dependent territory is fulfilled by the corresponding office equivalent to that of a head of state. For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governorwhereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor.
The same applies to Australian statesIndian statesetc. These non-sovereign-state heads, nevertheless, have limited or no role in diplomatic affairs, depending on the status and the norms and practices of the territories Chief of state.
In reality, however, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinetpresided over by a head of government who is answerable to the legislature. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature or, at least, not a majority opposition — a subtle but important difference.
It also gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution.
The executive branch is thus said to be responsible or answerable to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. In parliamentary constitutional monarchiesthe legitimacy of the unelected head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are often significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure as in the Constitution of Spain.
In republics with a parliamentary system such as India, Germany, Austria, Italy and Israel the head of state is usually titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are mainly ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system.
President Pranab Mukherjeehead of state of the Republic of India from July to July In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system. The older the constitution, the more constitutional leeway tends to exist for a head of state to exercise greater powers over government, as many older parliamentary system constitutions in fact give heads of state powers and functions akin to presidential or semi-presidential systems, in some cases without containing reference to modern democratic principles of accountability to parliament or even to modern governmental offices.
Usually, the king had the power of declaring war without previous consent of the parliament. For example, under the constitution of the Kingdom of Italythe Statuto Albertino —the parliamentary approval to the government appointed by the king—was customary, but not required by law.
So, Italy had a de facto parliamentarian system, but a de jure "presidential" system. Examples of heads of state in parliamentary systems using greater powers than usual, either because of ambiguous constitutions or unprecedented national emergencies, include the decision by King Leopold III of the Belgians to surrender on behalf of his state to the invading German army inagainst the will of his government.
After World War IIBelgium voted in a referendum to allow him back on the throne, but because of the ongoing controversy he ultimately abdicated. The Belgian constitutional crisis inwhen the head of state refused to sign into law a bill permitting abortion, was resolved by the cabinet assuming the power to promulgate the law while he was treated as "unable to reign" for twenty-four hours.
These officials are excluded completely from the executive: Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist. The constitution explicitly vests all executive power in the Cabinetwho is chaired by the prime minister articles 65 and 66 and responsible to the Diet articles 67 and The emperor is defined in the constitution as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" article 1and is generally recognized throughout the world as the Japanese head of state.
Although the emperor formally appoints the prime minister to office, article 6 of the constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without any right to decline appointment.Secretary of State Tahesha Way today announced key senior staff positions including Chief of Staff, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Director of Communications .
The State Border Service of Kyrgyzstan introduced a new method of border guarding - stationary border squads since , Abdykerim Alimbaev, chief of State Border Service's regional division for Osh and Jalal-Abad regions, said.
Chief of State vs. Head of Government It's important to note that the president of the United States is not just the head of state, the president is also head of government.
The U.S. isn't the only country that combines the two offices, but .
Nov 11, · The current Russian chief of state is Vladimir Putin, b ut the new chief of state, Dmitry Medvedev will take office May 7, In France, the chief of state is President Nicolas Sarkozy.
Sep 13, · II is the chief of state for the British Commonwealth nations.. The current Russian chief of state is Vladimir Putin, but the new chief of state, Dmitry Medvedev will take office May 7, In France, the chief of state is President Nicolas Sarkozy..
King Juan Carlos is the chief of state in Spain. Chief of state definition is - the formal head of a national state as distinguished from the head of the government.