In American women won the right to vote, but they did not attain legal equality with men in other areas. Sincewomen have won many other rights, but some people argue today that women have not yet achieved equality. After the ratification of the 19th Amendment inpoliticians learned that women, like men, did not always agree and vote as a bloc.
Besides taking oral evidence from the bodies and persons already alluded to, we have addressed an inquiry to the witnesses from England and Wales who gave evidence before the Consultative Committee in connection with the Report on attendance at Continuation Schools [the Acland Report ] which was published in A summary of views will also be found in Volume II.
Through the Board of Education we have been furnished with a large amount of information from those Local Education Authorities which exercise powers under the Choice of of Employment Act on the subject of the changes caused by the war in the conditions of Juvenile Employment.
That branch of the Board of Trade which is now the Ministry of Labour has also assisted us by instituting an inquiry into the same subject through the Juvenile Branches of the Labour Exchanges in all places in which there is an Advisory Committee.
We desire to express our thanks to the two Boards and the Local Authorities and the Advisory Committees for their co-operation.
One of the members of the Committee, Mr. Christopher Turnor, has, at our request, contributed a special Memorandum on the Rural side of the problem which will be found at the end of this Volume.
Any inquiry into education at the present juncture is big with issues of national fate. In the great work of reconstruction which lies ahead there are aims to be set before us which will try, no less searchingly than war itself, the temper and [page 2] enduring qualities of our race; and in the realisation of each and all of these education, with its stimulus and its discipline, must be our stand-by.
We have to perfect the civilisation for which our men have shed their blood and our women their tears; to establish new standards of value in our judgment of what makes life worth living, more wholesome and more restrained ideals of behaviour and recreation, finer traditions of co-operation and kindly fellowship between class and class and between man and man.
We have to restore the natural relations between the folk and the soil from which the folk derives its sustenance, to revivify with fresh scientific methods and better economic conditions the outworn practice of our agriculture, to learn over again that there is no greater public benefactor than the man who makes two ears of corn to grow where but one grew before.
We have to bring research to bear upon the processes of our manufactures, to overhaul routine and eliminate waste, to carry our reputation for skilful workmanship and honest and intelligent trafficking into new markets and to maintain it in the old.
These are tasks for a nation of trained character and robust physique, a nation alert to the things of the spirit, reverential of knowledge, reverential of its teachers, and generous in its estimate of what the production and maintenance of good teachers inevitably cost.
Whether we are to be such a nation must now depend largely upon the will of those who have fought for us, and upon the conception which they have come to form of what education can do in the building up and glorifying of national life.
For ourselves, we are content to leave it to that arbitrament. Scope of the Inquiry 3. The inquiries which we have undertaken have necessarily brought us into touch with many problems, not only of education, but also of industrial organisation, of administration, and of finance.
With many of these we do not conceive ourselves as having either the competence or the mandate to deal. Nor have we regarded our reference as giving us a roving commission to overhaul even the educational system as a whole; and in steering our way through the problems we have endeavoured, as far as possible, to concentrate our outlook on those groups of children and young persons whose interests are particularly commended to our attention.
These groups are three: Obviously, these three groups are not mutually exclusive. Even apart from war conditions, there have always been many who could not find advantageous employment because of the absence of a suitable training, while abnormal employment during the war may prove in many cases to be the direct cause of inclusion in one or both of the other groups.
Taken, together, the three groups may be expected, after the war, to constitute a very large section of that great class of employed juveniles between the ages of 12 and 18, to which nearly all members of the community belong in their turn, and which for many years past has been the subject of grave searchings of heart amongst educationists and social reformers.
They also include those children who are approaching the end of their day schooling, and are on the point of entering employment with such equipment as that schooling can afford. Our problem, therefore, is the standing problem of the adolescent wage-earner, aggravated by the effect of war-time conditions upon the serious difficulties which at all times it presents.
We think it right to begin our survey by a recapitulation of the main factors of this problem as they stood before the war. Thereafter we will proceed to indicate the new factors, or the further intensification of the old factors, of which the war itself is the cause.
And finally, we will consider how far the remedies which have formerly been advocated still remain applicable, or how far the new elements due to the war seem to call either for modifications of these, or for supplementary measures of an emergency character.
Statistics of Enrolment 4. We have endeavoured, on the basis of the census returns of and of figures collected by the Board of Education at about the same date, to arrive at a statistical picture of juvenile education as it stood before the war.
The results are set out in a Table at the end of this Report.Disclaimer Yes!
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defines citizen ship states cannot deprive citizens of life, liberty, and property. Through legislation and constitutional amendments, different American citizens have been granted the right to vote at different times.\n\n \n\nLegislation and constitutional amendments\n\n- 15th Amendment: Granted African Americans the right to vote\n- 19th Amendment: Women's Suffrage\n- 23rd Amendment: Allowed DC residents to vote in.
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