Yuri Arcurs Industrial relations refers to processes and outcomes involving employment relationships. Frequently the term is used in a narrower sense, for employment relationships involving collective representation of employees in the form of a labor union or employee association, especially in the United States. At the other extreme, industrial relations has been defined by Thomas A.
Posted on December 12, by Scott Alexander Aquinas famously said: For example, take medical research. Suppose a certain drug is weakly effective against a certain disease.
After a few years, a bunch of different research groups have gotten their hands on it and done all sorts of different studies. But there will also be random noise caused by inevitable variation and by some of the experiments being better quality than others. In the end, we might expect something looking kind of like a bell curve.
We see that the peak of the curve is somewhere to the right of neutral — ie weakly effective — and that there are about 15 studies that find this correct result. But there are also about 5 studies that find that the drug is very good, and 5 studies missing the sign entirely and finding that the drug is actively bad.
This is before we get into fraud or statistical malpractice.
As we increase experimental rigor, the bell curve might get squashed horizontally, but there will still be a bell curve. But maybe the drug is more effective in bipolar i than in bipolar ii Depakote, for example Or maybe the drug is very effective against bipolar mania, but much less effective against bipolar depression Depakote again.
And the latest study shows that their drug is great! Or they could add all of those studies about slightly different things. Depakote is ineffective at treating bipolar depression. Depakote is ineffective at maintenance bipolar therapy. Depakote is ineffective at bipolar ii. I think medical science is still pretty healthy, and that the consensus of doctors and researchers is more-or-less right on most controversial medical issues.
Like, take the minimum wage question please.
|User Contributions:||It is given as wage for the sum of work done by employees or in return for their services. The pay rate is determined by the market forces as it is considered a absolutely competitory market.|
|Outsourcing - Wikipedia||Whenever increasing the minimum wage is discussed, there is always concern that doing so might hurt job growth or imperil businesses that employ low-wage workers. In the 22 times the federal minimum wage has been raised, and the over times that states or localities have raised their minimum wages just since thethese concerns have never materialized.|
|While we have you...||Management processes[ edit ] Globalization and complex supply chainsalong with greater physical distance between higher management and the production-floor employees often requires a change in management methodologies, as inspection and feedback may not be as direct and frequent as in internal processes. This often requires the assimilation of new communication methods such as voice over IPinstant messagingand Issue tracking systems, new time management methods such as time tracking softwareand new cost- and schedule-assessment tools such as cost estimation software.|
|Definition||If minimum wage hikes lead businesses to eliminate jobs, should progressives still support them? The Seattle study, after all, seems to confirm neoclassical economic theory, which predicts that raising the minimum wage leads to job losses, particularly among workers with little education and few skills.|
We all know about the Krueger and Card study in New Jersey that found no evidence that high minimum wages hurt the economy. We probably also know the counterclaims that it was completely debunked as despicable dishonest statistical malpractice.
Maybe some of us know Card and Krueger wrote a pretty convincing rebuttal of those claims. Or that a bunch of large and methodologically advanced studies have come out since then, some finding no effect like Dubeothers finding strong effects like Rubinstein and Wither.
These are just examples; there are at least dozens and probably hundreds of studies on both sides. But we can solve this with meta-analyses and systemtic reviews, right? Depends which one you want. Do you go with this meta-analysis of fourteen studies that shows that any presumed negative effect of high minimum wages is likely publication bias?
With this meta-analysis of sixty-four studies that finds the same thing and discovers no effect of minimum wage after correcting for the problem? Or how about this meta-analysis of fifty-five countries that does find effects in most of them? Maybe you prefer this systematic review of a hundred or so studies that finds strong and consistent effects?
Can we trust news sources, think tanks, econblogs, and other institutions to sum up the state of the evidence?
The weight of the evidence is that such impacts are small to none.
They seem like experts. What do they think? Well, five hundred economists signed a letter to policy makers saying that the science of economics shows increasing the minimum wage would be a bad idea.
That sounds like a promising consensus…. Only 6 percent feel that minimum wage hikes are an efficient way to alleviate poverty. But unless you look very very hard, you will never know that.
If you are a conservative, what you will find on the sites you trust will be something like this: Economic theory has always shown that minimum wage increases decrease employment, but the Left has never been willing to accept this basic fact.
Inthey trumpeted a single study by Card and Krueger that purported to show no negative effects from a minimum wage increase. Since then, dozens of studies have come out confirming what we knew all along — that a high minimum wage is economic suicide.
Instead of listening to starry-eyed liberal woo, listen to the empirical evidence and an overwhelming majority of economists and oppose a raise in the minimum wage.
And if you are a leftist, what you will find on the sites you trust will be something like this: People used to believe that the minimum wage decreased unemployment. Since then, the results have been replicated over fifty times, and further meta-analyses Card and KruegerDube have found no evidence of any effect.The Bureau of Labor Statistics is the principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics.
Economics (/ ɛ k ə ˈ n ɒ m ɪ k s, iː k ə-/) is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work.
Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Yes, it will. The sum of normal distributions is a normal distribution. There are of course reasons to expect an asymmetrical bell curve (the simple way to hack funnel plots is to game your choice of axis – here, for example, focusing on the elasticity of labour demand favours certain labour market models above others).
Economist and author Arnold Kling talks about the economic impact of culture and morality with EconTalk host Russ Roberts. Drawing on a recent essay on the importance of social interactions, Kling explores the role of culture and norms and their.
Comprehensive and meticulously documented facts about taxes. Learn about the various types of taxes, the distribution of the tax burden, economic effects, hidden taxes, and more.
Economics Q & A - 1) The current recession is the longest since the Great Depression in the 's. We are still far from a recovery with unemployment at about % .