Increasing demands of clearness in administration, rapid information transfer, more competent performance and improved public service has pushed organizations to choose electronic means for success in business. Organizations can give better performance through innovative use of information technology and e-governance.
In Indian scenario, there was great efforts of the National Informatics Center NIC to join all the district headquarters during the eighties. In the beginning of nineties, IT technologies were improved by ICT technologies to extend its use for broader sectoral applications with policy emphasis on reaching out to rural areas and taking in greater inputs from NGOs and private sector as well.
There has been an increasing involvement of international donor agencies under the framework of e-governance for development to catalyse the expansion of e-governance laws and technologies in developing nations.
It is apparent in various research studies that e-Governance is fundamentally linked with the development of computer technology, networking of computers and communication systems.
In developing nations such technologies and systems became available with observable time lag as compared Evolution of e governance in india developed nations. When appraising the e governance model in India, it is established that with the liberalization of the economy from the early s onwards, there has been a convergence in the availability of progressive technologies and opportunities in this field.
The inception of e-Governance proceeded through four stages in India. In the first stage, with the availability of personal computers, majority of Government offices are well equipped with computers.
The use of computers began with word processing, quickly followed by data processing. In this stage, some units of a few government organizations are connected through a hub leading to sharing of information and flow of data between different government entities.
In the third stage, with increasing internet connectivity, a need was felt for maintaining a presence on the web. This resulted in maintenance of websites by government departments and other entities. A natural significance of on-line presence was opening up of communication channels between government entities and the citizens, civil society organizations etc.
The main objective of this stage was to lessen the scope of personal interface with government entities by providing downloadable Forms, Instructions, Acts, Rules.
It has been observed that there was more emphasis on automation and computerization, state governments have also endeavoured to use ICT tools into connectivity, networking, setting up systems for processing information and delivering services.
At a micro level, this has ranged from IT automation in individual departments, electronic file handling and workflow systems, access to entitlements, public grievance systems, service delivery for high volume routine transactions such as payment of bills, tax dues to meeting poverty alleviation goals through the promotion of entrepreneurial models and provision of market information.
The push has varied across initiatives, with focusing on facilitating the citizen-state interface for various government services, and others focusing on bettering livelihoods.
Every state government has taken the initiative to form an IT task force to outline IT policy document for the state and the citizen charters have started appearing on government websites.
G2G Government to Government: In this interaction, Information and Communications Technology is used to reorganize the governmental processes involved in the functioning of government entities as well as to increase the flow of information and services within and between different entities.
Gregory indicated that G2G is the online communications between government organizations, departments and agencies based on a super-government database.
This kind of interaction happen horizontally such as between different government agencies as well as between different functional areas within an organisation, or vertical such as between national, provincial and local government agencies as well as between different levels within an organisation.
Main intent of this interaction is to increase efficiency, performance and output. G2C Government to Citizens: G2C maintains the relationship between government and citizens. It allows citizens to access government information and services promptly, conveniently, from everywhere, by use of multiple channels.
Government-to-Citizens G2C model have been designed to facilitate citizen interaction with the government. In this situation, an interface is generated between the government and peoples which enables the citizens to benefit from efficient delivery of array of public services.
This expands the availability and accessibility of public services on the one hand and improves the quality of services on the other. In G2C model, clienteles have instant and convenient access to government information and services from everywhere anytime, via the use of multiple channels.
Additionally, to make certain transactions, such as certifications, paying governmental fees, and applying for benefits, the ability of G2C initiatives to overcome possible time and geographic obstacles may connect citizens who may not otherwise come into contact with one another and may in turn facilitate and increase citizen participation in government Seifert, G2B Government to Business: In this type of interaction, e-Governance tools are used to help the business organizations that provide goods and services to seamlessly interact with the government.Evolution of E-Governance Global shifts towards increased deployment of IT by governments emerged in the nineties, with the advent of the World Wide Web (WWW).
e-governance: e-Services from Citizens Perspective | Problem Statement Bangladesh is a small developing country with millions of people living under poverty. There is a scarcity of resources with high demand of services in the public sector.
Tracking the Evolution of E-Governance in India M.P. Gupta, Indian Institute of Technology, India ABSTRACT An attempt is made in this article to gain an understanding of the evolution of Electronic Governance (E-governance) in India.
The initial part of the article examines the Historical Perspectives and the evolution. Evolution and growth of e-governance in India The introduction of e-government systems in India started out in the late 60s and early 70s with an emphasis on computerizing applications for defence services, for the economic planning department, for the national census, for elections and for tax collections etc.
Tracking the Evolution of E-Governance in India: /ch An attempt is made in this paper to gain an understanding of the evolution of Electronic Governance (E-governance) in India.
E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues. The “e” in e-Governance stands for ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of governance through the utilization of ICT (Information and Communications Technology).