Length, in feet, of a half wavelength in free space at 1. Many folks suggest that you should cut the actual wire a little long for a given application, then trim it to resonance at the desired frequency. Verticals constructed of tubing or towers will deviate substantially from the formula due to their greater diameter compared to a wire.
Most people agree that animals have at least some moral status — that is why it is wrong to abuse pets or needlessly hurt other animals. This alone represents a shift from a past view where animals had no moral status and treating an animal well was more about maintaining human standards of dignity than respecting any innate rights of the animal.
In modern times, the question has shifted from whether animals have moral status to how much moral status they have and what rights come with that status.
The strongest pro animal rights answer to this question would be that non-human animals have exactly the same moral status as humans and are entitled to equal treatment. The ethicists who endorse this position do not mean that animals are entitled to the very same treatment as humans; arguing that animals should have the right to vote or hold office is clearly absurd.
The claim is that animals should be afforded the same level of respectful treatment as humans; in short, we should not have the right to kill animals, force them into our service, or otherwise treat them merely as means to further our own goals. One common form of this argument claims that moral status comes from the capacity to suffer or to enjoy life.
In respect to his capacity, many animals are no different than humans. They can feel pain and experience pleasure.
Therefore, they should have the same moral status and deserve equal treatment. However, we look upon past examples of this behavior as morally condemnable. Being of a particular race or gender does not give one any grounds for declaring outsiders to be of a lower moral status.
Many animal rights advocates argue similarly—that just because we are human is not sufficient grounds to declare animals less morally significant. The first step in making that argument is to show that humans are more important than animals. Below, I will outline one of the more common arguments used to reach this conclusion.
Some philosophers advocate the idea of a moral community. Roughly speaking, this is a group of individuals who all share certain traits in common.
By sharing these traits, they belong to a particular moral community and thus take on certain responsibilities toward each other and assume specific rights. Although a moral community could theoretically include animals, it frequently does not.
The human moral community, for instance, is often characterized by a capacity to manipulate abstract concepts and by personal autonomy. Since most animals do not have the cognitive capabilities of humans and also do not seem to possess full autonomy animals do not rationally choose to pursue specific life goalsthey are not included in the moral community.
Once animals have been excluded from the moral community, humans have only a limited obligation towards them; on this argument, we certainly would not need to grant animals all normal human rights. If animals do not have the same rights as humans, it becomes permissible to use them for research purposes.
Under this view, the ways in which experimentation might harm the animal are less morally significant than the potential human benefits from the research. One problem with this type of argument is that many humans themselves do not actually fulfill the criteria for belonging to the human moral community.
Both infants and the mentally handicapped frequently lack complex cognitive capacities, full autonomy, or even both of these traits. Are those individuals outside the human moral community?
Do they lack fundamental human rights and should we use them for experimentation?
One philosophical position actually accepts those consequences and argues that those humans have the exact same rights or lack of rights as non-human animals. However, most people are uncomfortable with that scenario and some philosophers have put forth a variety of reasons to include all humans in the human moral community.
In fact, some of them the infants will surely meet all of the criteria in the future. With that in mind, the argument runs, it is best practice to act charitably and treat all humans as part of the moral community.
In summary, defenders of animal experimentation argue that humans have higher moral status than animals and fundamental rights that animals lack.
Accordingly, potential animal rights violations are outweighed by the greater human benefits of animal research. Proponents of the middle ground position usually advocate a few basic principals that they believe should always be followed in animal research.
One principle calls for the preferential research use of less complex organisms whenever possible. For example bacteriafruit flies, and plants would be preferred over mammals. This reflects a belief in a hierarchy of moral standing with more complex animals at the top and microorganisms and plants at the bottom.
This point of view suggests that more complicated organisms have richer, more fulfilling lives and that it is the richness of the life that actually correlates with moral worth. Another principle is to reduce animal use as far as possible in any given study.
Extensive literature searches, for instance, can ensure that experiments are not unnecessarily replicated and can ensure that animal models are only used to obtain information not already available in the scientific community. Another way to reduce animal use is to ensure that studies are conducted according to the highest standards and that all information collected will be useable.Jun 16, · Before we go any further you'll need to download and install the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment), this is the program we use to write programs for the Arduino.
The main purpose of the following work is to analyze two pieces of modernist literature “Mrs Dalloway”, by Virginia Woolf and “The Short Happy Life of Francis McComber” by Ernest Hemingway in the light of point of view and experimentation. Allen M. Hornblum is the author of five books, including Acres of Skin and Sentenced to leslutinsduphoenix.com work has been featured on CBS Evening News, Good Morning America, NPR's Fresh Air, BBC World Service, and The New York Times..
Judith Lynn Newman is an associate professor of Human Development at Penn State University (Abington).
Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources by trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. This picture shows the family of accessories in front of the Samlex SEC power supply and the radio itself.
Please click on this or other pictures on this page for a larger view. Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid s, during World War II and the leslutinsduphoenix.com target populations included Romani, Sinti, ethnic Poles, Soviet POWs, disabled Germans, and Jews from across Europe..
Nazi physicians and their assistants forced.