The Battle of Marathon was fought in BCE by the Athenians against the Persian invasion, and after their victory over the Persians, the Athenians formed the Delian League, which was basically a naval super power and united several of the Greek city states together with Athens, paying tribute or providing ships. Sparta had their own oligarchic powers in the Peloponnese, and several major city states were on the side of Sparta. When the Spartans feared that the Delian League was gaining too much power, they tried to force Athens to eliminate some of the naval power, which the Athenians refused to do. The war lasted thirty years, crippling the Athenian economy and army, and led to the death of their greatest leader, Pericles.
Back to Top of Page Sophocles Sophokles was the second of the three great ancient Greek tragedians after Aeschylus and before Euripides whose work has survived.
Only seven of his plays have survived in a complete form but, for almost fifty years, he was the most-awarded playwright in the Dionysia dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens.
Sophocles was an important influence on the development of the drama, most importantly by adding a third actor and thereby reducing the importance of the Chorus in the presentation of the plot and by developing his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus.
His artistic career began in earnest in BCE when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus. He became a man of importance in the public halls of Athens as well as in the theatres, and he was elected as one of ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces, as a junior colleague of Pericles.
In BCE, he served as one of the hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, helping to manage the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles, and in BCE, he was elected one of the commissioners crafting a response to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War.
Sophocles died at the venerable age of ninety in or BCE, having seen within his lifetime both the Greek triumph in the Persian Wars and the terrible bloodletting of the Peloponnesian War. His son, Iophon, and a grandson, also called Sophocles, followed in his footsteps to become playwrights themselves.
Most of his plays show an undercurrent of fatalism and the beginnings of the use of Socratic logic in drama.
Sophocles respected Aeschylus enough to imitate his work early on in his career, although he always had some reservations about his style.
However, Sophocles went on to a second stage which was entirely his own, introducing new ways of evoking feeling out of an audience, and then a third stage, distinct from the other two, in which he paid more heed to diction, and in which his characters spoke in a way that was more natural to them and more expressive of their individual character feelings.
Only seven plays of his prodigious output have survived in a complete form:What impact did the outcome of the Peloponnesian War have on Greece? The Greek Golden Age started to come to an end. How did the political system of ancient Athens differ from the political system of the United States today?
The Peloponnesian War ( BCE) was fought between Athens and its empire, known as the Delian League, and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta.
During this conflict, Greek warfare evolved from an originally limited and formalized form of conflict, to all-out struggles between city-states, complete with large-scale atrocities. What impact did the outcome of the Peloponnesian War have on Greece? The Greek empire doubled in size. The Greek empire split, granting Sparta independence.
The Greek Golden Age started to come to an end. The military strength of Greece increased/5(7). After the Persian invasion was defeated, the Greeks were free to resume their internal fighting, culminating in what is now called the Peloponnesian War, which wrought great distruction throughout.
A major outcome of the Peloponnesian War was that Athens lost its empire and consequently the source of revenue which had supported its dominant navy. Sparta and its .
Socrates did not sympathize with the ascetics -- he believed in enjoying life. which he considered ineffectual and corrupt.
During this time, the Peloponnesian War dragged on, and the city of Athens suffered plague, treason, and finally total defeat. and his magnum opus The Republic, in particular, have had an impact on European history.